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/* -*- mode: c++; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4 -*- */

 Copyright (C) 2008 Roland Lichters

 This file is part of QuantLib, a free-software/open-source library
 for financial quantitative analysts and developers - http://quantlib.org/

 QuantLib is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 under the terms of the QuantLib license.  You should have received a
 copy of the license along with this program; if not, please email
 <quantlib-dev@lists.sf.net>. The license is also available online at

 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
 FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the license for more details.

/*! \file syntheticcdo.hpp
    \brief Synthetic Collateralized Debt Obligation and pricing engines

#ifndef quantlib_synthetic_cdo_hpp
#define quantlib_synthetic_cdo_hpp

#include <ql/instrument.hpp>
#include <ql/default.hpp>
#include <ql/experimental/credit/issuer.hpp>
#include <ql/time/schedule.hpp>
#include <ql/termstructures/yieldtermstructure.hpp>
#include <ql/termstructures/defaulttermstructure.hpp>

#include <ql/experimental/credit/basket.hpp>
#include <ql/experimental/credit/lossdistribution.hpp>
#include <ql/experimental/credit/onefactorcopula.hpp>

namespace QuantLib {

    //! Synthetic Collateralized Debt Obligation
      The instrument prices a mezzanine CDO tranche with loss given default between
      attachment point \f$ D_1\f$ and detachment point \f$ D_2 > D_1 \f$.

      For purchased protection, the instrument value is given by the difference
      of the protection value \f$ V_1 \f$ and premium value \f$ V_2 \f$,

      \f[ V = V_1 - V_2. \f]

      The protection leg is priced as follows:

      - Build the probability distribution for volume of defaults \f$ L \f$ (before
      recovery) or Loss Given Default \f$ LGD = (1-r)\,L \f$ at times/dates
      \f$ t_i, i=1, ..., N\f$ (premium schedule times with
      intermediate steps)

      - Determine the expected value \f$ E_i = E_{t_i}\,\left[Pay(LGD)\right] \f$
      of the protection payoff \f$ Pay(LGD) \f$  at each time \f$ t_i\f$ where
      Pay(L) = min (D_1, LGD) - min (D_2, LGD) = \left\{
      \displaystyle 0 &;& LGD < D_1 \\
      \displaystyle LGD - D_1 &;& D_1 \leq LGD \leq D_2 \\
      \displaystyle D_2 - D_1 &;& LGD > D_2

      - The protection value is then calculated as
      \f[ V_1 \:=\: \sum_{i=1}^N (E_i - E_{i-1}) \cdot  d_i \f]
      where \f$ d_i\f$ is the discount factor at time/date \f$ t_i \f$

      The premium is paid on the protected notional amount, initially
      \f$ D_2 - D_1. \f$ This notional amount is reduced by the expected protection
      payments \f$ E_i \f$ at times \f$ t_i, \f$ so that the premium value is
      calculated as

      V_2 = m \, \cdot \sum_{i=1}^N \,(D_2 - D_1 - E_i) \cdot \Delta_{i-1,i}\,d_i

      where \f$ m \f$ is the premium rate, \f$ \Delta_{i-1, i}\f$ is the day
      count fraction between date/time \f$ t_{i-1}\f$ and \f$ t_i.\f$

      The construction of the portfolio loss distribution \f$ E_i \f$ is
      based on the probability bucketing algorithm described in

      John Hull and Alan White, "Valuation of a CDO and nth to default CDS
      without Monte Carlo simulation", Journal of Derivatives 12, 2, 2004

      The pricing algorithm allows for varying notional amounts and
      default termstructures of the underlyings.

      \ingroup credit

      \todo Investigate and fix cases \f$ E_{i+1} < E_i. \f$
00100     class SyntheticCDO : public Instrument {
        class arguments;
        class results;
        class engine;

        SyntheticCDO (const boost::shared_ptr<Basket> basket,
                      Protection::Side side,
                      const Schedule& schedule,
                      Rate upfrontRate,
                      Rate runningRate,
                      const DayCounter& dayCounter,
                      BusinessDayConvention paymentConvention,
                      const Handle<YieldTermStructure>& yieldTS);

        boost::shared_ptr<Basket> basket() const { return basket_; }

        bool isExpired () const;
        Rate fairPremium() const;
        Rate fairUpfrontPremium() const;
        Rate premiumValue () const;
        Rate protectionValue () const;
        Real premiumLegNPV() const;
        Real protectionLegNPV() const;
          Total outstanding tranche notional, not wiped out
        Real remainingNotional() const;
          Expected tranche loss for all payment dates
        std::vector<Real> expectedTrancheLoss() const;
        Size error () const;

        void setupArguments(PricingEngine::arguments*) const;
        void fetchResults(const PricingEngine::results*) const;

        void setupExpired() const;

        boost::shared_ptr<Basket> basket_;
        Protection::Side side_;
        Schedule schedule_;
        Rate upfrontRate_;
        Rate runningRate_;
        DayCounter dayCounter_;
        BusinessDayConvention paymentConvention_;
        Handle<YieldTermStructure> yieldTS_;

        mutable Rate fairPremium_;
        mutable Real premiumValue_;
        mutable Real protectionValue_;
        mutable Real upfrontPremiumValue_;
        mutable Real remainingNotional_;
        mutable Size error_;
        mutable std::vector<Real> expectedTrancheLoss_;

    class SyntheticCDO::arguments : public virtual PricingEngine::arguments {
        arguments() : side(Protection::Side(-1)),
                      runningRate(Null<Real>()) {}
        void validate() const;

        boost::shared_ptr<Basket> basket;
        Protection::Side side;
        Schedule schedule;
        Rate upfrontRate;
        Rate runningRate;
        DayCounter dayCounter;
        BusinessDayConvention paymentConvention;
        Handle<YieldTermStructure> yieldTS;

    class SyntheticCDO::results : public Instrument::results {
        void reset();
        Real premiumValue;
        Real protectionValue;
        Real upfrontPremiumValue;
        Real remainingNotional;
        Real xMin, xMax;
        Size error;
        std::vector<Real> expectedTrancheLoss;



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